number of individuals of that species living in that habitat, that may vary in time and space Krebs, C. (2008). The Ecological World View. Australia: CSRO publishing.
process by which an organism adjusts to the environment and its changes. Jaume, A. L. (2011). Adaptabilidad y funcionalidad: Una Teoría acerca de las funciones biológicas. <em>Ludus Vitalis, 19</em>(35), 97-112. Retrieved from <a href=""></a>.
Adaptive governance
The way in which the structure of the rules, norms, and mechanisms of application adapt and evolve through time as a result of changes in information or characteristics of the environment of common goods. Nilo. G., M. (2015). Gobernanza Adaptativa: La experiencia en los países del Pacífico Sudeste. Dirección de Asuntos Científicos Y Recursos Pesqueros. Retrieved from
Adventure tourism
collection of recreative activities that have certain degree of controlled risk and a direct contact with nature
a vascular plant in which the egg is inside a closed ovary that is usually inside a flower Encyclopædia Britannica. (2015). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
a group of similar populations or species that simultaneously occur in a determined area Naselli-Flores, L., Padisák, J., & Dokulil, M. T. (Eds.). (2002). Phytoplankton and equilibrium concept: The Ecology of Steady-State Assemblages. Castelbuono, Italia.
Characteristics of populations that may have a numeric representation. Some examples of population attributes are density, natality, age groups, biotic potentials, dispersion, and growth forms. Universidad América Latina. (n.d.). Ecología y Medio Ambiente. Retrieved from
something that is originally from the same place in which it occurs RAE. (2015). Diccionario de la Lengua Española: Edición del tricentenario. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de


prokaryote domain of the tree of life that includes unicellular organisms with peptidoglycan cell walls and no nucleus Encyclopædia Britannica. (2015). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
areas of superficial or subterranean water that are part of a natural hydrographic network or water catchments, have a continuous or interrupted flow, and converge into larger bodies of water that may lead to major rivers, natural water deposits, swamps, or directly into the sea Artículo 3 del Decreto 1640 del 2 de Agosto de 2012
a division of parts of the planet that considers relations between its organisms and the environment, under an evolutionary perspective Beaugrand, G. (2015). Marine Biodiversity,Climatic variability and Global Change. New York: Routledge.
Biological invasion
introduction of an alien species that is able to modify the natural environment it colonizes Encyclopædia Britannica. (2015). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
Biological record (occurrence record)
Information related to the evidence (existence, fact, or occurrence) of a living organism. This event may be recorded in its natural medium (in situ) by human or machine observations or else originate from the study of specimens found in a biological collection. SiB Colombia (2015). Sistema de Información sobre Biodiversidad de Colombia. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
total mass of the organisms of a system expressed as weight over area RAE. (2015). Diccionario de la Lengua Española: Edición del tricentenario. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
The search in nature for molecules, compounds, genes or microorganisms, among other components, that may potentially have commercial value in medicine or other industrial sectors. World Health Organization. (2015). Essential Medicines and Health Products Information Portal. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
Group of organisms in a determined area. RAE. (2015). Diccionario de la Lengua Española: Edición del tricentenario. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
Bovine cattle raising
An agricultural activity dedicated to the production of beef cattle. The final purpose of its production is to sell products in the market for their consumption. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Económicas. El contador en la actividad Ganadera . Capítulo 1 Concepto de ganadería.
part of the captures of fishing that are incidental because they are not the species towards which the fishing effort is directed Consulta de expertos FAO/DANIDA. (1998). Directrices para la recopilación sistemática de datos relativos a la pesca de captura. Bangkok, Tailandia.


Camera trapping
Use of a diversity of techniques in automatized photographic equipment. An example are movement sensors that obtain images that allow for not only knowing about the presence of some species but also obtaining estimations of frequency and density and identifying individuals by designs on fur, identification spots, etc. Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia. (n.d.). Fototrampeo en los Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia. Retrieved March 28, 2017, from <a href=""></a>.
the class of Chondrichthyes, which includes more than 600 marine species such as sharks, rays, and manta rays Audesirk, T., Audesirk, G., & Bruce E., B. (2003). Biología: La vida en la tierra (6ta ed.). México: Prentice Hall México.
design and production of maps
Charge capacity
represents the maximum level of use an area may maintain Arias, C., Mesquita B., A., Morales, E., Guilar, N., Cancino, D., Gallo, M., … Turcios, M. (1999). Capacidad de Carga Turística de las Áreas de Uso Público del Monumento Nacional Guayabo, Costa Rica. WWF Centroamérica.
Climate change
Identifiable changes in the climate (e.g. through statistical tests) that deviate from the average or its inherent variability, and persist through long periods of time, generally ten years or more. Climate change may be caused by internal natural processes or external forces such as sun cycle modulations, volcanic eruptions, or persistant human activities that change the composition of the atmosphere or the soil. In the article 1 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC), climate change is defined as "a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods". IPCC, 2014: Climate change 2014: Informe de síntesis. Contribución de los Grupos de trabajo I, II y III al Quinto Informe de Evaluación del Grupo Intergubernamental de Expertos sobre el Climate change [Equipo principal de redacción, R.K. Pachauri y L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Ginebra.
Complementary conservation measure or strategy
Defined geographical area in which conservation practices or a set of practices are implemented by a social figure (community or institutional) and where different scales, interests, figures, and administration and management schemes converge with the purpose of ensuring the preservation, restoration, and sustainable use of the biological and cultural diversity that contribute to the complementarity and functional and structural connectivity of protected areas. The territory may be continental (urban and rural), coastal, or oceanic. Encuentros Intersirap 2014. Basada en los trabajos del SIRAP Pacífico y SIRAP Macizo.
In the structure of a biological community three fundamental aspects are distinguished: composition, stratification, and limits. Composition is comprised by abundance, diversity, dominance, habitat, ecological niche, and ecological indicator.
Conservation plans
Action plans for the conservation of species and ecosystems are indispensable tools for the conservation of biodiversity. An action plan for conservation proposes guidelines for actions that are critical to achieve conservation goals and monitor their progress to adequately adjust practices. MADS y Universidad de Antioquia. (2015). Plan de acción para la conservación de las zamias de Colombia.
Conservation status
The conservation status of plants and animals is one of the mostly used indicators to evaluate the condition and biodiversity of an ecosystem. The categories and criteria used by the IUCN Red List constitute a global system used to measure the extinction risk of species. (UICN 2001). Fuente: Elisa Riservato, Jean-Pierre Boudot, Sonia Ferreira, milos Jovic, Vincent J. Kalkman, Wolfgang Schneider, B. S. y A. C. (2009). El estado de conservación y la distribución de las libélulas de la cuenca del Mediterráneo.
Ecological credits finance “green” activities and investments that contribute to sustainable development through “green” financing services for small and medium enterprises. BMSC, L. A. B. P. (2015). Crédito Ecológico. Retrieved March 19, 2017, from
Cryptic diversity
The genetic variability of various taxa that is not visibly recognized in the phenotype thus only one taxon is recognized. It usually refers to the existence of many species in what has erroneously identified as only one based on appearance. It is a phenomenon that may have conservation implications because the entirety of genetic diversity with adaptive and evolutionary potential is not protected. Trontelj, P., & Fišer, C. (2009). Cryptic species diversity should not be trivialised. Systematics and Biodiversity, 7(01), 1-3


According to the UNEP, deforestation is the total or partial destruction of trees to use the resulting space with activities of agriculture, cattle raising, or others. Aguilar, G. (2007). Panama, Ganadería extensiva y destrucción de los bosques.
a continuous loss of humidity in soils located above phreatic levels
influence or organisms in a community in function of the abundance of their species Sarmiento, F. O. (2000). Diccionario de ecología: Paisajes, conservación y desarrollo sustentable para latinoamérica.
Drainage network
System of channels through which superficial, sub-superficial, and subterranean water flows temporally or permanently Ortiz A., R. (1996). Glosario geohidrológico. San Luis Potosí, México: Editorial Universitaria Potosiana.


Ecological connectivity
Also referred to as landscape connectivity, it is the movement of species (exchange of individuals and genes) in the territory between different habitat areas Asociación Española De ecología Terrestre. (n.d.). Herramientas para el análisis de la conectividad ecológica: fundamentos metodológicos y ejemplos de aplicación. Retrieved March 19, 2017, from
Ecological integrity
Level of conservation of ecosystems. The concept supposes the recognition of an original condition with a basic nature Vélez R., L. A., & Gómez S., A. (2008). Un marco conceptual y analítico para estimar la integridad ecológica a escala de paisaje. ARBOR Ciencia, Pensamiento Y Cultura, 729, 31–44. Retrieved from
Ecological niche
multidimensional space occupied by a species and defined by biotic and abiotic conditions Begon, M., Mortimer, M., & Thompson, D. J. (2009). Population ecology: a unified study of animals and plants. John Wiley & Sons.
Ecological restoration
assisted recovery of a degraded or destroyed system with the goal of recovering its natural composition and function Jackson, L. L. (1992). The role of ecological restoration in conservation biology. In Conservation biology (pp. 433-451). Springer US.
Ecological structure
Collection of biotic and abiotic elements that support essential ecological processes of the territory. The purpose of their use is that of preserving, conserving, restoring, and sustainably using and managing natural renewable resources, which support the socio-economic development of populations. Decreto Número 3600. Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial -MAVDT-. Bogota D.C. 20 de Septiembre de 2007.
Ecosystem-based adaptation
EbA integrates sustainable management, conservation, and ecosystem restoration to provides services that allow humans to adapt to the impacts of climate change. Its purpose is to maintain and increase resilience and reduce vulnerability of people and ecosystems. Lhumeau, D. Cordero (2012). Adaptación basada en Ecosistemas: una respuesta al cambio climático. UICN, Quito, Ecuador
Ecosystem services
Benefits that society obtains from ecosystems. They may be direct (food, water, or timber) or indirect (nutrient cycling, formation of organic matter). Millenium Ecosystem Assessment. (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being. Vol. 5. Island Press, Washington, DC.
specialized tourism that seeks to create a minimal impact on natural ecosystems, promotes education and sensibilization about the importance of protecting nature and cultural heritage, and is active in conserving biodiversity and creating benefits for local populations (Ley 300 de 1996)
belonging to a unique location RAE. (2015). Diccionario de la Lengua Española: Edición del tricentenario. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
Environmental compensations
Actions that aim to compensate biodiversity for the negative impacts or effects that may not be avoided, corrected, mitigated or substituted and cause the loss of biodiversity in natural terrestrial ecosystems and secondary vegetation so that the effective conservation of an ecological equivalent area is guaranteed. A strategy of permanent conservation or ecological restoration must be developed in order to achieve zero net loss of biodiversity. MADS. (2012). Manual para la asignaciones por pérdida de Biodiversidad. Bogotá D.C, Colombia.
Environmental conflicts
Asymmetries or inequalities between different parties due to the differential use of natural resources, with impacts on the health or well-being of communities. Environmental Justice Organization, Liabilities and Trade. (2015). Mapping Environmental Justice. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
Domain of the tree of life that includes organisms with nucleated cells. These include all organisms except Bacteria and Archaebacteria. Encyclopædia Britannica. (2015). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
Exotic species
Species, subspecies or inferior taxon that is found outside its natural area (past or present) and potential dispersal (outside of the area that it occupies naturally without the direct or indirect intervention of humans) and includes any part, gamete, or propagule of the species that may survive and reproduce. Argüelles, L. C., & García, Á. I. (2006). 1. Definición de especie exótica invasora y criterios para su identificación. Especies Exóticas Invasoras: Diagnóstico Y Bases Para La Prevención Y El Manejo, 288.
Ex situ conservation
protection of genetic material outside of the area of distribution of the source population Patiño V., F. (1997). Conservación de Recursos Genéticos. In Recursos Genéticos de Swietenia Y Cedrela en los Neotrópicos: Propuestas para Acciones Coordinadas. Roma, Italia: FAO.
vanishing of all the individuals of one species Encyclopædia Britannica. (2015). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de


physiological potential of reproduction of one individual throughout its lifetime McMahon, C. R., & Bradshaw, C. J. A. (2008). Fecundity. In S. E. Jørgensen & B. D. Fath (Eds.), Population Dynamics. Vol. [2] of Encyclopedia of Ecology, 5 vols (pp. 1535–1543). Oxford: Elsevier.
Flooded rice fields
Productive systems in which the availability of rainfall is used. Most of the parts of production are mechanized and do not demand much labor force.
Ecosystems that are located chiefly in the states of Casanare and Arauca and have a tropical humid climate that in some areas may be more dry. They have a flat-concave relief with high points or banks that represent 40% of the territory and are the foraging areas in the winter. Lower areas such as river beds where water is accumulated during the winter due to runoff represent 60% of the territory and are the foraging areas during the summer.
Floral composition
the list of plant species in a determined place, usually considering density, distribution, and biomass Cano, Á., & Stevenson, P. R. (2009). Diversidad y composición florística de tres tipos de bosque en la Estación Biológica Caparú, Vaupés. Revista Colombia Forestal, 12, 63–80. Retrieved from
Forest exploitation
sum of operations related to cutting of trees and extraction of trunks or other parts for their posterior transformation into industrial products Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura (FAO). (2008). Aprovechamiento. Retrieved March 18, 2017, from
Forestry planning
multiple use of the forest so that its total capacity of providing goods and services does not decrease Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura (FAO). (1994). Desafío de la ordenación forestal sostenible: Perspectiva de la silvicultura mundial. Roma, Italia.
The structural pattern of a landscape is composed by three elements: fragments, corridors, and the matrix. Fragments are delimited and differentiated by their biotic and abiotic composition and structure, and may be large or small, round or elongated, scarce or numerous, and scattered or grouped. Sánchez R., G., & Rojas M., A. (Ed.). (2007). Tópicos en sistemática, Biogeografía, Ecología y Conservación de mamíferos. Hidalgo, México: Universidad Autónoma del estado de Hidalgo.
Freshwater ecosystems
Ecosystems where water is a fundamental components and concentration of salts does not surpass 10% or there is no influence of tides, in comparison to other aquatic ecosystems such as the ocean and coasts. Estrella, J., Manosalvas, R., Mariaca, J., & Ribadeneira, M. (2005). Biodiversidad y recursos genéticos: una guía para su uso y acceso en el ecuador. Quito, Ecuador: Ediciones Abya Yala.
Food chain
flow of energy and matter inside a community through feeding Begon, M., Mortimer, M., & Thompson, D. J. (2009). Population ecology: a unified study of animals and plants. John Wiley & Sons.
Functional diversity
Value, range, and abundance of functional attributes of a community or an ecosystem. It has been proposed as a tool to understand the relations between community structures, diversity, and ecosystem functioning. Heywood, V. H. & Watson, R. T. (eds). (1995). Global Biodiversity Assessment (GBA). UNEP. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press
Functional traits
Biological traits that influence the performance of organisms that may be related with ecosystem processes (flux of matter and energy), ecosystem stability (resistance and resilience), biological interactions (intra and interspecific) or habitat change. Sánchez R., G., & Rojas M., A. (Ed.). (2007). Tópicos en sistemática, Biogeografía, Ecología y Conservación de mamíferos. Hidalgo, México: Universidad Autónoma del estado de Hidalgo.


Gene flow
movement of genes between populations through migrating individuals University of California Museum of Paleontology. (2015). Understanding Evolution your one stop source for information on evolution. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
Genetic sequences
sequence of nucleotides (adenine, cytosine, guanine, uracil, thymine) that constitutes genetic information University of California Museum of Paleontology. (2015). Understanding Evolution your one stop source for information on evolution. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
Collection of the complete genetic information of an organism. University of California Museum of Paleontology. (2015). Understanding Evolution your one stop source for information on evolution. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
branch of geology and geography that studies the forms of the terrestrial surface and the processes that create them Escuela Técnica Superior Ingenieros de caminos, canales y puertos. (n.d.). <em>Geomorfología Aplicada</em>. Universidade da Coruña.
Completion of political relations between varied actors involved in the process of deciding, executing, and evaluating decisions about topics of public interest. The form of interaction between the actors reflects the quality of the system and affects each of its components and the system in its totality. Whittingham M., M. V. (2010). ¿Qué es la gobernanza y para qué sirve? Revista Análisis Internacional, 2, 219–235. Retrieved from
Greenhouse gases
compounds that despite being present in the atmosphere (trace gases), significantly increase temperature in the lower atmosphere due to their capacity of absorbing and reflecting infrared radiation IDEAM y PNUD (2015). Inventario Nacional de Gases de Efecto Invernadero (GEI) de Colombia: Tercera Comunicación.
Gross Domestic Product
Total goods and services produced in a country during a given time period. Includes the production generated by residents in the country and excludes the production of national that reside in the exterior. Banco de la República de Colombia. (2013). ¿Qué es producto interno bruto PIB? Retrieved March 19, 2017, from


High mountain
altitudinal summits of the Andean mountain ranges or areas of higher orogenic rises that result in higher potential energy and thus transfer materials to lower, medium or peripheric areas IDEAM, Glaciares de Colombia, más que montañas con hielo. Bogotá, D.C., 2012. 344 páginas.
Human well-being
Social, economic, environmental, and cultural dimensions shape the definition of human well-being, and the latter originates in the individual and finally ends in society life. More specifically, this view of human well-being as closely related to the environment is equal to the basic capacities to grow in every aspect of life, using as essential pillars freedom, education, inclusion, health, economic income, and the environment. WRI. (2005). Los ecosistemas y el Human well-being humano: humedales y agua. Informe de síntesis. Washington, D.C.: Evaluación de los Ecosistemas del Milenio. World Resources Institute (WRI)
Hydraulic or wood traits
Provide information related to the capacity of storage and transportation of water, mechanical resistance, architecture, and carbon gain. The functional traits of the trunk have been studied mostly in hydraulic and conductivity aspects of the plant. Chave, J., D. Coomes, S. Jansen, S. L. Lewis, N. G. Swenson, y A. E. Zanne. 2009. Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12:351-366


In situ conservation
Continuous maintenance of a population in the community to which it belongs and in the environment to which it is adapted. It permits the protection of complete ecosystems in which there is a continuity of evolutionary and ecological processes. Patiño V., F. (1997). Conservación de Recursos Genéticos. In Recursos Genéticos de Swietenia Y Cedrela en los Neotrópicos: Propuestas para Acciones Coordinadas. Roma, Italia: FAO.
Inclusive savannas
areas in which cattle is released in order for it to alter the composition and distribution of existing grasses, resulting in a "cattle ecology" in the region of the Llanos Orientales "Ganadería, Paisaje, Territorio y Región. Una historia ecológica y social de la Orinoquia Colombiana". Julio Arias Vanegas. IAvH. 2004
Cluster or group of flowers that originate from a single major axis. Encyclopædia Britannica. (2015). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
Integrated management
The integrated management of biodiversity and its ecosystem services is defined as a process in which actions for conserving biodiversity and its ecosystem services are planned, executed, and monitored in a given social and territorial scenario that may have different conservation statuses. The purpose of this is to maximize human welfare through maintaining the resilience of socio-ecological systems at a local, regional, national, and international scale.   Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible. (2012). Política Nacional para la Gestión Integral de la biodiversidad y sus Servicios ecosistémicos. PNGIBSE. Bogotá, D.C., Colombia.
Integrated valuation
The Valoración Integral de la Biodiversidad y los Servicios Ecosistémicos (Integrated Valuation of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services) is an opportunity to create tools and data for managing the territory. It is a proposal that by following the guidelines of the PNGIBSE seeks to recognize the value of ecosystem services and biodiversity to support decision making without the implication of focusing on only one dimension of valuation. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt. (2014). Valoración Integral de la Biodiversidad y los servicios ecosistemicos. Aspectos conceptuales y metodológicos. Bogotá D.C, Colombia.
International cooperation
A tool of collaboration that supports processes of development through the transfer of technical and financial resources between different parties of the international system (governments, territorial agents, civil society organizations, NGO’s). Universidad del Rosario. (n.d.). Oportunidades Cooperación Internacional. Retrieved March 19, 2017, from
This term is related to the degree in which two or more systems may exchange information through interfaces in a particular context. The definition includes not only the capacity of exchanging data (syntactic interoperability) but also to the ability of correctly interpreting the data being exchanged (semantic interoperability). Association for Computing Machinery. 2015. ACM Digital Library. Recuperado el 21 de diciembre de 2015 de
Invasive species
species that prosper outside of their natural area of distribution without the help of human beings and threaten natural or semi-natural habitats
line on a map or diagram that joins points of equal gradient or inclination Real Academia Española. (2014). Isoclina. Retrieved March 28, 2017, from


Leaf traits
Leaf traits, the physiological and morphological characteristics of leaves in plants, are probably the most sensitive to environmental variation. These traits influence ecosystem processes such as primary productivity, leaf litter decomposition, and nutrient cycling. Garnier, E., B. Shipley, C. Roumet, y G. Laurent. (2001). A standardized protocol for the determination of specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content. Functional Ecology 15:688-695.


Management practices
Standardized or uniform forestry practices that must be followed or considered with the purpose of avoiding or minimizing negative environmental impacts and risks. Corporación Nacional Forestal (CONAF). (2013). Guía Básica de buenas prácticas para plantaciones forestales de pequeños y medianos propietarios. Santiago de Chile, Chile.
morphological and functional transformation during development RAE. (2015). Diccionario de la Lengua Española: Edición del tricentenario. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
Policies, technologies, and trending measures to limit and reduce emissions of greenhouse effect gases and improve their sinks, according to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2007). Informe de Síntesis del IPCC. Tercer Informe de Evaluación. Retrieved March 18, 2017, from
Environmental monitoring is a process of continuous observation that implies the systematic recollection of data through standardized equipment and methods Sinchi. (2007). Balance anual sobre el estado de los ecosistemas y el ambiente de la Amazonia Colombiana. Bogotá D. C., Colombia.
Multilateral cooperation
A type of cooperation in which governments give funds to multilateral organizations so that they may finance their own activities. In this way, management is in the hands of public international institutions and not donor governments. Vasco, U. del P. (2005). Cooperación bilateral/multilateral. Retrieved March 19, 2017, from


Native species
species that is found inside the area of its original (historic or current) or natural distribution according to its potential of natural dispersal without the help or intervention of human beings Guías para la prevención de pérdidas de diversidad biológica ocasionadas por especies exóticas invasoras aprobadas durante la 51ra Sesión del Consejo, Febrero del 2000 UICN.
the settlement of a non-native species in location a where it can live and reproduce RAE. (2015). Diccionario de la Lengua Española: Edición del tricentenario. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
Nature tourism
type of tourism in which the offer of products and services is developed around an attraction to nature and shaped by values of sustainability Fuente


Open data
data that may be freely used, reused, and redistributed by any person, but require attributions and sharing in the same form as they were published Open knowledge. 2015. Open data handbook. Recuperado el 21 de diciembre de 2015 de
hierarchic category of taxonomic organization that encompasses families and genus RAE. (2015). Diccionario de la Lengua Española: Edición del tricentenario. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
branch of zoology that studies birds in different research topics such as natural history, ecology, distribution, and conservation mechanisms, among others UNMSM, M. de H. N. (n.d.). ¿Qué estudia la Ornitología? Retrieved March 19, 2017, from


Phenomenon that occurs when paramo species that are highly competitive and restricted to higher elevations occupy lower altitudinal levels Vargas, R., O. (2011). Ecological Restoration: Biodiversity and Conservation. Acta Biológica Colombiana, 16(2), 221–246. Retrieved from
Phylogenetic diversity
Phylogenetic diversity quantifies different taxonomic categories represented in a group of species and thus allows for prioritizing evaluated groups of species according to maximum hierarchic diversity. Establecimiento de prioridades para la conservación de mamíferos terrestres neotropicales de México. (2008). García-Marmolejo G., Escalante T. y Morrone J.. Mastozoología neotropical versión On-line. 15(1). Recuperado el 21 de diciembre de 2015 de
collection of data associated to the analysis and synthesis of phylogenetic, systematic, and evolutionary information for a given species Hugo, W., Hobern, D., Kõljalg, U., Tuama, É. Ó., y Saarenmaa, H. (2017). Global Infrastructures for Biodiversity Data and Services. En M. Walters y R. J. Scholes (Ed.), The GEO Handbook on Biodiversity Observation Networks (pp. 259–291). Cham: Springer International Publishing. Recuperado de
study of the relationships between climate, geology, morphology, origin, and age of rocks, hydrology, and biotic aspects in the area where the latter impact the soil and its characteristics for potential use and management Corporación autónoma regional del Cauca. (n.d.). Fisiografía. Cauca, Colombia: Plan Básico de Ordenamiento Territorial, Municipio de Silvia, Cauca.
An ecosystem service that results from a mutualistic interaction in which the necessity of plants to transport pollen to other stigmas of the same species is fulfilled by animal vectors that in turn benefit from the resources the plant offers in terms of food and reproduction. Therefore, the interaction between plant and pollinator includes adapting reproductive components of the plant and feeding and reproduction elements in the animals. Bonilla, M.A. (2012). La polinización como servicio ecosistémico. En Iniciativa colombiana de polinizadores ICPA (eds.). Abejas. Bogotá, Colombia: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto Humboldt. Cap. 1. p. 1-103.
Group of organisms of the same species that inhabits a determined area in which individuals are in contact and may reproduce with each other. Encyclopædia Britannica. (2015). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
Population biology
Branch of biology in which the patterns and causes of diversity in and within populations is studied, including distribution, size and change over time. This research area appeared when studies of ecology and genetic diversity were combined. . Hastings, A. (1997). Population Biology concepts and models. Springer Science & Business Media.
Primary vegetation
vegetation in places where there has not been transformation or it has been mild, so the soil remains covered by natural vegetation Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (SEMARNAT). (2005). Capítulo 2: Vegetación y uso del suelo. In Informe de la SEMARNAT 2005. México.
In fisheries, refers to the fish production that human being obtain from fishing and aquaculture. FAO. (2006). El estado mundial de la pesca y la acuicultura.Departamento de Pesca y Acuicultura de la FAO. Roma.
Protected areas
a geographically defined area that has been designated, regulated, and managed with the goal of reaching specific conservation objectives


Rate of change
A rate of population growth that is caused by the number of births, deaths, emigrations and immigrations. It is one of the most important population parameters that is used. Valverde, T., Meave, J. A., Carabias, J., & Cano-Santana, Z. (2005). Ecología y Medio Ambiente. (G. Trujano M., Ed.). México.
silvicultural process used to re-establish forest cover, thus initiating the restoration of forest functions United States Department of Agriculture. (n.d.). Reforestación. Retrieved March 19, 2017, from
Relative coverage
Relative coverage is obtained by the following formula: Relative coverage= Absolute coverage of each species/ Absolute coverage of all species x 100, where Absolute coverage= Coverage of a species/ Sampled area Zarco-Espinosa, V. M., Valdez-Hernández, J. I., Ángeles-Pérez, G., & Castillo-Acosta, O. (2010). Estructura y diversidad de la vegetación arbórea del parque estatal Agua Blanca, Macuspana, Tabasco. Universidad y ciencia, 26(1), 1-17. Retrieved from
species richness is defined as the number of species present in a given geographical area Begon, M.; Townsend, C.R. & Harper, J.L. 2006. Ecology From individuals to ecosystems. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.
Risk management
Identification, analysis, and quantification of probabilities of loss and secondary effects that are caused by disasters, as well as preventive, corrective, and reductive actions that must be developed. Risk is a function of two variables: threat and vulnerability.
Root traits
Consist of the underground characteristics of a tree and include both thin roots, which absorb water and nutrients, and thick roots that give support to the plant. Despite the fact that roots are essential in adaptative processes of woody plants in forest ecosystems, few investigations have treated these types of traits due to the complications of sampling in the field. As a tree grows in size, the depth and web of the radicular system is more complex. Sánchez R., G., & Rojas M., A. (Ed.). (2007). Tópicos en sistemática, Biogeografía, Ecología y Conservación de mamíferos. Hidalgo, México: Universidad Autónoma del estado de Hidalgo.
National Registry of Protected Areas. The National Registry of Protected Areas is part of the National System of Protected Areas and it is a tool created by decree number 2372 of 2010. It has the purpose of environmental authorities being able to register the protected areas in their jurisdiction and that users may recognize, document, and consult updated information of geographic data and special attributes of protected areas in Colombia. Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia. Recuperado el 27 de marzo de 2016 de
Rural tourism
relates to the enjoyment of the physical and social surroundings of rural culture, including the personalized supply of direct contact with rural activities, customs, and forms of life


Secondary vegetation
Vegetation cover originated by the process of succession from natural vegetation to the one that is formed after intervention or destruction of primary vegetation. It may be found under the process of recovery towards its original status and it is found in zones transformed for other uses or in abandoned agricultural areas. SIAT-AC. (2009). Vegetación secundaria o en transición. Fichas de los patrones de las coberturas de la tierra de la Amazonia Colombiana. Retrieved March 19, 2017, fromón+secundaria+o+en+transición.
National System of Protected Areas. The combination of protected areas, social actors, and management strategies and instruments that contribute as a whole to the accomplishment of the country’s conservation objectives. It includes all protected areas of public, private, or community governance and may be at a national, regional, or local scale. Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia. Recuperado el 27 de marzo de 2016 de
action composed by two or more causes that has an effect that is superior to the sum of the individual effects Real Academia Española. (2014). Sinergia. Retrieved March 28, 2017, from
Regional Systems of Protected Areas. Regional subsystems (six) created as units of planning and linkage areas that follow certain biophysical, social, economic, and cultural criteria and the limits of municipalities. The regions will be: Caribbean, Pacific, Amazon, Orinoquia, Western Andes, and Northern Andes. They are part of the SINAP and, according to the law, must be coordinated by the UAESPNN (Special Administrative Unit of the National Natural Park System) of Colombia at a national level, generating regional areas and recognizing local spaces. Documento Conpes 3680 de 2010 Lineamientos para la Consolidación del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas Consejo Nacional de Política Económica y Social - Conpes (Conpes Económico) Recuperado el 27 de marzo de 2016 de
Socio-ecological system
A system in which cultural, political, social, economic, ecological, and technological components, among others, interact. The concept emphasizes on human perspectives about nature. Dourojeanni, A., Jouralev, A., & Chávez, G. (2002). Gestión del agua a nivel de cuencas: Teoría y práctica. Santiago de Chile: ONU.
Socio-environmental conflicts
processes in which different social actors interact due to the shared interest in natural resources Spadoni, E. (n.d.). Los conflictos socioambientales en el contexto Latinoamericano. Retrieved from
Sound landscapes
: Analyzes all sounds heard in a location. Sounds may be biological, geological, or anthropic. Guadalupe, G., García, B., &amp; Ruiz, E. (2014). El paisaje sonoro y sus elementos, 9(2), 57–61.
Species list
list of scientific names with taxonomic, geographic, or thematic information. They rapidly provide a baseline of the species in a given context
an individual that serves as a sample of its species Real Academia Española. (2014). Espécimen. Retrieved March 28, 2017, from
Strategic ecosystems
Ecosystems that guarantee the supply of environmental goods and services that are key for the human and sustainable development of the country. These ecosystems are notable for maintaining basic ecological equilibriums and processes such as climate and water regulation and air, water, and soil purification. Additionally, these ecosystems are contribute to the conservation of biodiversity. Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible de la República de Colombia. Recuperado el 1 de abril de 2016 de


Taxonomy/ taxonomic
hierarchal classification of living organisms RAE. (2015). Diccionario de la Lengua Española: Edición del tricentenario. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
activities people (tourists) do during trips to and stays in places different to their regular surroundings and instead has the purpose of leisure, culture, health, events, conventions, or business (Law 1558 of 2012)
Tropical Andes
The region of the Tropical Andes includes the Andean-Amazon region of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia, in addition to the Colombian Chocó and northeastern Ecuador. The region includes a large altitudinal range between approximately 65 m a.s.l. in the Amazon lowlands to 5,500 m a.s.l. in the Andes Mountain Ranges. Tognelli, M. F., Lasso, C. A., Bota-Sierra, C. A., Jiménez-Segura, L. F., & Cox, N. A. (Eds.). (2016). Estado de Conservación y Distribución de la Biodiversidad de Agua Dulce en los Andes Tropicales. Gland, Suiza, Cambridge, UK y Arlington, USA: UICN.


Urban biodiversity
the variety of living organisms in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats that are found inside and around human settlements that are considered as urban areas


Vegetative traits
Related to the establishment potential of species in new environments, and they determine the position of plants in vertical gradients, as well as their competitive vigour. These traits refer to characteristics proper to the plant such as maximum height and type of growth, among others. Kruger, L., & Midgley, J. (2001). The Influence of Resprouting Forest Canopy Species on Richness in Southern Cape Forests, South Africa. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 10(5), 567-572. Retrieved from
Subphylum that includes animals with a vertebral column. Encyclopædia Britannica. (2015). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
Infectious agent that reproduces itself inside the cells of other organisms. Encyclopædia Britannica. (2015). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Recuperado el 15 de diciembre de 2015 de
Animals in which the embryo develops inside the maternal body Gobierno de la ciudad de Buenos Aires: Ministerio de educación. (2007). Ciencias Naturales: Los seres vivos. Diversidad biológica y ambiental. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Gobierno de la ciudad de Buenos Aires.
Susceptibility or incapacity of a system to face adverse effects of climate change and particularly climate variability and extreme phenomena Panel Intergubernamental sobre Cambio Climático, 2014.


Water resources
sources of water, usually fresh water, that are useful or potentially useful for society Springer Nature. (n.d.). Water resources. Retrieved March 28, 2017, from
Water regulation
Water regulation is one of the major services ecosystems offer. It includes water collection as snow or ice during the wet season as a reserve that allows for a gradual water flow during the whole year. It is therefore related to a water storage that results in a relatively constant flow despite irregular levels of precipitation. Bert De Bièvre / Luis Acosta Área de Cuencas Andinas/Area of the Andean Basins CONDESAN (Consorcio para el Desarrollo Sostenible en la Ecorregión Andina/ Ecosistemas altoandinos, cuencas y Water regulation High Andean Ecosystems, River Basins and Water Regulation. ENVIRONMENT/MEDIO AMBIENTE. Recuperado el 27 de marzo de 2016 de
Wild relatives
In plants, wild relatives occur naturally and are related to crop plantations. Biodiversity International. (2016). Parientes silvestres de cultivos. Recuperado el 3 de junio de 2016 de

Measuring units

mm Milimeter
m3 Cubic meter
m Meter
km2 Square kilometer
km3 Cubic kilometer
ha Hectar
Mm3 Millions of cubic meters
Mw Megawatt
m a.s.l. Meters above sea level
% Percentage
kg Kilogram
l Liter
t Ton
MWh Megawatt per hour
GWh Gigawatt per hour


sp. Species